DS 23


Richard Difford


Richard Difford is an academic with expertise both in creative technologies and architectural history. His teaching focuses on architectural representation, the history of science and mathematics, and the use of electronics and coding in architectural design.


François Girardin


François Girardin has extensive international experience in architecture and is currently involved in teaching design and cultural context. He has specialist interests in material technologies and digital fabrication.


David Scott


David Scott is an academic and Director of the Fabrication Lab. His interests are in the transformative application of digital technologies to architectural design.


Guest Critics

Toby Burgess
Mariia Galiullina
Thomas Hopkins
Maria Kramer
Afolabi Spence
Ben Stringer


It goes without saying that the activities that determine a building’s function also shape its design. But the nature and form of those activities, seen in terms of movements and actions, can also be a source of inspiration and formal expression. Taking this as our starting point, this year, DS23 explored the way the recording, representation and expression of movement could inspire new forms of architectural expression and programmatic response. Our fieldtrip was to the Flemish city of Antwerp. Bordering the Dutch province of Zeeland, Antwerp sits in a unique wider landscape in which a fragile balance is struck between land and sea. Yet, comprising a diverse range of conditions from the Westerschelde estuary to the medieval city centre, Antwerp is also home to one of the largest ports in Europe as well as being the centre of the world diamond trade. A location rich in history and culture, we were able to investigate the landscape, social context, and economics of this fascinating city. And although centred around the port, Antwerp has afforded a broad range of programmatic opportunities. Seeded by an analysis and investigation of movement in different spheres of human activity, nature and machines, projects have developed from the ground up and have responded directly to the vibrant cultural, commercial and industrial activities to which Antwerp plays host. In the face of climate change and rising sea levels in a city dominated by river and port, many of these projects als